With the associate Union Franchise, you will benefit from the following:

Using our Modern and professionally develop website and social media platforms, we will create a Personalised advertising campaign designed specifically for you. Its aim is to give you a strong and steady supply of students in your chosen area.

  • A back office that is dedicated to helping you to maintain a successful franchise.
  • Card payment system, to make payments easy for both you and your students.
  • Access to Union school of motoring’s terms and conditions(for your pupils)
  • A pay per pupil system. You only pay for the students that you need and only receive students when you request them. Allowing you the flexibility to fit your working needs around other commitments.
  • You will always be treated as an individual.
  • There is no Contract, you are free to go whenever you wish for whatever reason you wish. There will not be a charge for pupils that have been supplied to you during your time with Union.

At Union we understand that you are our customers and that your success is our success.

Cartoon red car

Driving lessons in
surrey and Hampshire

Union school of motoring is one of the leading driving schools in surrey. With our decade of experience and many successes in the driver training industry, Union school of motoring is the right choice to help you on your way to becoming an accomplished driver that is not only capable of passing the DSVA driving test but remaining a competent and safe driver for life.

At Union school of motoring we understand we all have different financial needs, that is why we offer flexible payment options.

Cartoon blue car

ADI Band 2 - Traffic signs and signals, car control, pedestrians, mechanical knowledge

The information you find here will help prepare you to teach and answer any questions your future students may have.

The video above will give you instructions on how to use this page. Written instructions are also given below.

Below you will find,

All the DVSA questions in Band 2. This has been broken down into 9 different sections, each section has approximately 30 question, 4 possible answers and an explanation of the question to help you understand the question and select the correct answer.


What should you do before turning left from a busy major road into a minor road?

a. Look out for vehicles in front that may be stopping
b. Move out to the right to make the turn easier
c. Sound your horn to pedestrians who are in the road
d. Always select first gear on approach

When preparing to turn left into a side road, you should be prepared for obstructions or vehicles that may wish to stop and park. This could be before or after the turning.

Read the question, look at the four possible answers and then read the explanation, you will not be given the correct answer at this point. Do this for each of the questions in this section and then test yourself on the questions in this section using the mock test, you will find this at the bottom of the questions in this section. After you have completed the test, you will be given your score and any correct or incorrect answers you made. You will find all the correct answers in the “view all” page that you will find on the welcome page.

This is the same for each section in this band

You will also find a Mock test for the whole of Band 2 this is made up of all the questions in Band 1 (all sections) use this to test your overall knowledge when you have completed each individual section. You will find this separate from all the sections on this page.

Below the Sections and Mock test, you will find various sections giving you further information relating to the subjects in Band 2, if you are having problems with a certain subject look here to help you find the answer and give you a better understanding of road procedure.

And if you need a little more help, email your dedicated online tutor, remember we are here to help!

Union School of Motoring icon

Mock Test

Traffic signs give us instructions and warnings. Understanding the various shapes and colours of road markings will help you be able to read the road ahead.

Triangular road signs

triangle road signs

Triangle road signs are warnings, they are giving you advanced warning of an oncoming hazards. The warning sign will have a red boarder and a picture in the centre of the sign to give the information of the potential oncoming hazard.

The example above is warning you that you are approaching a crossroad, if you look closely at the picture in the centre of the sign you can see that one part of the cross is thicker than the other, this tells you who gets the priority at this junction.

Inverted triangular road sign

inverted triangle

All triangle warning signs come point upwards, the only exception is the give way sign above. The give way sign in always point down, this makes the give way sign one of the most notable exceptions, the distinctive shape being recognisable even if the face is obscured by dirt or snow.

Circular road signs

circular blue circular red

Circular road signs are basically instructions. They can come in two different colours.

Blue, Circles which is an instructing you to do something, and are generally considered a positive instruction “You must do that!” The example above is instructing you to proceed to the right.

Red, Circles are instructing you not to do something, and are generally considered a negative instruction “you can’t do that!” The example above is a speed limit sign, and you are being instructed not to go over the speed depicted in the centre of the sign, in this case you cannot go above 30mph.

An exception is the minimum speed limit sign below.

min speed

Rectangular road signs

rctnagle sign.jpg

Rectangular road signs are information or directions and they come in many different colours.

green rectangle

Green rectangle signs give information and directions on A roads. If you look at the road sign above there are several different coloured squares on this sign, if the directions lead to a motorway the direction will head to a blue sign, if it directs you to a local area the direction will head to a white sign.

blue direction1 blue direction2 blue direction3

Blue rectangle signs give information and directions. On motorways they are almost always used for giving directions, the only exception is the end of motorway sign! If you see a blue rectangle sign on a non-motorway road it is giving you information only, this could be telling you of a bus lane, cycle lane or a one-way street.

white rectangle1 white rectangle2 white rectangle3

White rectangle signs give information and directions on local roads. You will also find white signs being used in conjunction with other signs where more information is needed.

brown sign1 brown sign2 brown sign3

Brown signs give directions and information to attractions and placed of interest, from campsites, historical towns, zoos, castles even battlefields the list is endless!

yellow sign1 yellow sign2 yellow sign3

Yellow signs are usually found during road works and give the driver information of how to pass the road works safely. They are also used for emergency diversion routes, which can be used if traffic needs to be diverted by the authorities in an emergency, they have a shape in the centre of a yellow rectangular sign.

Sometimes you will find small rectangular signs on lampposts dotted around, they give you information on the specific road you are on.

Some more exceptions to the basic rule

national speed limit

The national speed limit sign, it is a circle but it’s not blue or red! It is done in white with a black line going diagonally across it. The national speed limit sign supersedes any speed limit signs.

stop sign

Stop signs are octagonal are one of the most notable exceptions, the distinctive shape being recognisable even if the face is obscured by dirt or snow.

There are many safety features on modern cars, making sure they are correctly adjusted, and all warning lights are investigated will increase your safety.

Head restraints


  • The head restraint should be adjusted so the rigid part of the head restraint is at least as high as the eye or top of the ears, and as close to the back of the head as is comfortable. Note: Some restraints might not be adjustable.

Seat belts

  • Seat belts are fitted to all modern cars, and it is a legal requirement for them to be worn, unless you are medically exempt
  • Children under 3 years old must use the correct child restraint
  • Children between 3 years – 12 years and are under 1.35 meters in hight must use the correct child restraint
  • Children that are 12 – 13 years old or are over 1.35 meters in hight must use an adult seat belt
  • Children 14 years and older must wear a adult seat belt
  • It is the driver’s responsibility to ensure that all passengers under 14 years old are using the correct restraints
  • You may remove your seat belt as the driver if you are carrying out a reversing manoeuvre
  • If the correct child restraints are not available in a taxi or in an emergency, then an adult seat belt must be worn

Air Bags

  • You can have up to 10 air bags fitted to a vehicle to give maximum protection in a collision
  • Always have your vehicle checked if your airbag warning light comes on or stays on after you start your vehicle

There are many forms of signals that you give when driving, understanding the different signals and ensuring you give them at the right time to give the best possible warning to other road users.

Directional indicators

“Indicator light picture”

  • Directional indicators are the most used signal when driving
  • Directional indicators warn other road users that you are planning on changing direction
  • Always make sure you give your signal in timely and that the signal is not confusing

Hazard warning lights

“Hazard light picture”

  • Hazard warning lights should be used when you are causing an obstruction to other road users
  • Hazard warning lights should be used to warn other road users if you are slowing down and stopping on a motorway

Brake lights

“Brake light picture”

  • When you apply the foot brake your brake lights come on and warn other road users that you are slowing down
  • Brake lights are the second most common signal you give to other road users

Reverse lights

“Reverse light picture”

  • Reverse lights will come on when you put the vehicle in reverse gear
  • They warn other road users that you are planning on going backwards

Position of your vehicle

  • It is important to remember that the position your vehicle takes in the road will give signals to other road users of your intention, an example would be if you are planning on going straight ahead at a mini round about or crossroad, not giving a signal is a signal

Arm signals

Arm signals are rarely used but it is important to understand there meaning, check the highway code for examples of arm signals or follow the link below


Keeping your car well maintained is important to stop vehicle break downs, having a basic knowledge can help you keep your vehicle well maintained and ensure that your vehicle complies with the UK road law.


  • Keeping car tyres in good working order will help with road grip, petrol consumption and road legal
  • Car tyres must have 1.6mm of tread depth across the central threequarters of the breadth of the tyre, and around the entire outer circumference of the tyre.
  • No cuts and bulges in the tyre
  • Must be properly inflated to the manufacture’s recommendations
  • Underinflated tyres will increase fuel consumption and increase tyre wear on the edges of the trye shortening its life span
  • Underinflated tyres can also put pressure on the side walls of the tyre which can increase the chances of catastrophic failure
  • Over inflated tyres can cause increased wear on the centre of they tyre and reduce the life of the tyre
  • Do not forget your spare tyre, make sure it is safe, legal and has the correct tyre pressure


  • Keep the external lenses of your lights clean and in good working order
  • Regularly check all the lights on your vehicle to ensure they are in good order and working properly


  • Regularly check your brakes, Brakes should not feel spongy or slack and the vehicle should not pull to one side when the footbrake is applied
  • Brakes should be tested as you set off.
  • If your ABS warning light stays on after you start your vehicle or comes on when you are driving, take it to a service centre immediately
  • Regular servicing will help to identify any problems you may have with your braking system before it becomes a major problem

Routine maintenance

  • Always make sure your vehicle is service in accordance with the manufacture’s recommendations
  • Always make sure you have your vehicle checked by a professional when we approach a new season, having the correct levels of summer coolant and winter antifreeze is important for driving in possible extreme weather conditions
  • Do not ignore any warning lights that may appear on your dashboard, have them checked immediately.

Weekly checks

  • Carrying out weekly checks will help to keep your vehicle working in good order
  • Check you oil level is at the correct level
  • Check your engine coolant (water) is at the correct level
  • Ensure your washer fluid reservoir is full of the appropriate fluid
  • Check your tyre pressures are correct (including the spare, if appropriate)
  • Check all your vehicle lights are working and the external lenses are clean

Catalytic converters

  • The catalytic converter is fitted to the exhaust system
  • It helps to convert harmful gasses into non-harmful gasses using a chemical reaction
  • If your catalytic converter is not working properly, this will become evident when your vehicle has its MOT or service

Power steering

  • Power steering makes the steering easy to turn and increases the comfort of the driver
  • To check your power steering is working, before you start your vehicle place gentle pressure on the steering wheel, when the engine starts the steering should noticeably become light and easy to turn.

You should look and listen for emergency vehicles using flashing blue, red, amber, or green lights, some emergency vehicles will also use sirens and flashing headlights.

Blue lights

  • You will find blue flashing lights being used by Police, ambulance, and fire service and paramedics
  • You must allow emergency vehicles to pass if they are displaying flashing blue lights which may or may not be accompanied by a siren, but only if it is safe to do so and you continue to abide by all road traffic rules and laws

Green lights

  • You will find green lights used to warn you of a doctor on call

Amber lights

  • You will find amber lights on vehicles that can cause obstruction
  • Amber lights do not give the user any priority over other traffic

Dealing with an approaching Emergency vehicle with blue lights flashing

  • Do not act in a way that can endanger you or other road users
  • You are not permitted to break the law, unless directed by a police officer
  • When stopping or moving out of the way of an emergency vehicle, always consider the route the emergency vehicle is likely to take and stop in the most convenient place to allow the emergency vehicle to pass

There are many factors that can affect how effectively our brakes will operate.


  • One basic rule is the faster you drive the harder it is to control your vehicle and the longer your stopping distances will be
  • Keep your braking system well maintained and fixing any problems as soon as they arise will always insure you have the most efficient brakes possible for your vehicle
  • Avoid heavy braking wherever possible, brake progressively slowly applying pressure on the brake pedal.
  • If you are required to brake in an emergency, make sure you stop as quickly as possible keeping both hands on the steering wheel, remember the forces on the car will make it harder to control.
  • Avoid pressing on the clutch when you are braking as this can decrease your cars braking performance


  • The most common cause for skidding is driver error, appropriate use of speed is the best way to avoid skidding.
  • Driving defensively with good use of your mirrors will help reduce the chances of having to brake harshly which will help you avoid skidding
  • If your vehicle is fitted with anti-lock braking system (ABS) remember while it will assist you in preventing your car from losing skidding out of control, it is still possible to skid with ABS fitted if the road surface is poor, excessive water on the road surface or tyres that are low on tread.
  • Never use the handbrake when moving and applying the footbrake as the increased braking with the rear brakes can cause the vehicle to skid
  • If your vehicle begins to skid, release the brake pedal, and avoid applying any pressure to the brake pedal until the vehicle is under control, braking can make the skid worse
  • Always ease off the accelerator when skidding, adding engine power to the skid will make matters worse
  • If your vehicle starts to skid and the rear of the vehicle starts to drift left or right, always steer into the skid, if the rear of the vehicle is going left steer left until the car wheels are inline
  • If all four wheels are skidding, then avoid steering until the vehicle gains some grip on the road again

Driving through deep water

  • Always ask yourself “how deep is the water?” “Is it safe for me and other road users to drive through?”
  • Driving though deep water can cause your engine to cut out because water can enter the exhaust or cause electrical systems to fail
  • If you feel it is safe to drive through the water, then always do so slowly keeping to the centre of the road. Because of the camber the flood water will usually be shallowest in the centre of the road and deepest by the kerb
  • Make sure you are paying attention to other road users, you may place others in danger unintentionally

Traffic lights control the flow of traffic at some junctions, The light system will give instructions to the road users when they can go and when they must stop.

Colour of Lights


  • Red light means stop and wait at the stop


  • Red and amber means the lights are about to turn green, you must continue to wait until the green light shows


  • Green light means you can go if the way is clear


  • Amber lights mean stop, unless you have already crossed the stop line, or you are too close to the stop line to stop safely


  • Filter lights are green arrows that allow you to go in the direction that the arrow shows, even if the main lights are showing a red light.

Stop lines


  • Stop lines are a single going across the road, you must not cross a stop line unless the traffic light is showing a green light and it is safe to do so.


Advanced stop lines

  • Advanced stop lines leave a space free for cyclists to get slightly ahead of the traffic. You must stop at the first stop line and avoid stopping in the space allocated for cyclists. If you have passed the first stop line and the traffic light shows red you must stop at the second stop line.
  • If traffic lights fail you must treat the junction as if it is not traffic light controlled, do not presume you have priority

Traffic light sequence

Traffic lights change in the following sequence,

  • Red – Red and Amber – Green – Amber and then back to red

Traffic calming is used to slow drivers down in areas that are higher risk than normal

20mph zones


  • 20 mph zones reduce the speed of road users by advising a maximum speed, it also warns that other traffic calming measures may be present in the 20mph zone

Mini roundabouts


  • Mini roundabouts are sometimes used as a traffic calming measure by breaking up long roads into shorter sections

Speed Humps

There are 3 main types of speed humps, that can be found on roads with a speed limit of 30mph or less. They may be accompanied by a road sign warning you of their presence.

Button speed humps


  • Button speed humps are square and do not cover the whole of the road
  • They are sometimes called “cushions”
  • They are designed so large vehicles can straddle them
  • May have a triangle warning marking on each hump

Tabletop Humps


  • Tabletop Humps are large square Humps that cover the whole width of the road
  • May have a triangle warning marking on each hump

Rounded speed humps


  • Rounded speed humps will cover the whole width of the road
  • May have a triangle warning marking on each hump

Road narrowing


  • Roads are usually narrowed using build outs on one side of the road
  • They will usually be accompanied by a warning sign and possibly give way lines



  • Sometimes bollards are placed in the road in a way that will act as a traffic calming measure


  • The horn is used to warn other road users of your presence
  • The horn is usually situated in the centre of the steering wheel and sometimes on the tip of the indicator or wiper stalks
  • You must not use the horn when stationary unless you are in danger from another vehicle
  • You must not use your horn when you are stationary between the hours of 11.30pm and 7am unless you are in danger from another vehicle

Hazard warning lights


  • Hazard warning lights can be situated in various parts of the driver compartment
  • Hazard warning lights are used to warn others if you have broken down and are causing an obstruction
  • Hazard warning lights are used to warn other road users that you are slowing down quickly on a motorway or a road where the speed limit is 70mph

Fog lights

“Warning light picture”

  • Use fog lights when visibility is reduced to 100 meters or less due to bad weather
  • For lights are a deep penetrating light, it can dazzle other road users if used in the wrong conditions
  • Modern cars are legally required to have a rear fog light fitted
  • Front fog lights are optional
  • Rear fog lights have an orange warning light (see above)
  • Front fog lights have a green warning light (see above)

Dipped head lights

“Warning light picture”

  • Dipped head lights are the most used of your lights
  • They get their name because the light is dipped towards the road so other road users do not get blinded
  • You should turn on your dipped head lights when viability is seriously reduced (when you cannot see more than 100 meters)
  • You should always use dipped head lights at night and in bad weather

Side Lights

“Warning light picture”

  • Side lights should be left on when you park on a road where the speed limit is above 30mph
  • You do not need to use side lights if you are parking on a road with a speed limit of less that 30mph and you are a parking facing oncoming traffic or in a designated parking bay

Full Beam

“Warning light picture”

  • You should use full beam head lights when driving at night on unlit roads
  • Full beam lights are angled higher than dipped head lights to give you a better view of the road ahead
  • Be careful of using high beams, they can dazzle other road users. Make sure you turn them off when meeting following other road users meeting oncoming traffic or being overtaken

Tail Lights

  • Tail lights are red lights found on the rear of your vehicle
  • Tail lights will come on when dipped headlights are turned on

ABS warning light

“Warning light picture”

  • If the ABS warning light comes on when you are driving or if it stays on after you have started your car, your ABS is defective and should be checked by a professional immediately

Engine management light

“Warning light picture”

  • If your engine management lights come on then you need to have the vehicle engine checked by a professional
  • If the engine management light is Orange, you have a problem which needs attending to at the first available opportunity
  • If the engine management light is red, then stop your vehicle and call for assistance

Engine oil warning light

“Warning light picture”

• If the engine oil warning light comes on or stays on after you have started driving, then you may need to check and amend your oil level

Brake pad warning light

“Warning light picture”

  • If the brake pad warning light comes on your brake pads may have started to wear low, you should have them checked at the first available opportunity

Coolant level warning light

“Warning light picture”

• If the coolant level warning light comes on or stays on when you are driving, then you may need to top up your coolant reservoir

Engine temperature warning light

“Warning light picture”

  • If the engine temperature warning light comes on your vehicle may be overheating, you should contact a trained professional immediately

Air bag warning light

“Warning light picture”

  • If the air bag warning light stays on when you start your car or comes on when you are driving, you may have a problem with the air bags and you should have them checked immediately

Pedestrian crossing are areas designated areas for pedestrians to cross the road, they have priorities that all road users must abide by

You must never

  • Park on a pedestrian crossing
  • Park on the zig zag lines that accompany pedestrian crossings
  • Overtake the nearest moving vehicle while they are within the zig zag area
  • Overtake a vehicle that has stopped to give way to pedestrians at a pedestrian crossing

Zebra crossings


  • Zebra crossings have flashing amber lights on either side of the road and black and white road markings
  • Zebra crossings will have a give way line before the crossing, this is where we should stop and give way to any pedestrians on the crossing
  • You must give way to anyone that is on the zebra crossing
  • Some zebra crossings are divided into two sections by a central island (see picture below) each half is a separate crossing


Parallel crossings


  • Some Zebra crossings have a lane designated for cyclists to cross the road. Cyclists should be treated in the same way as the pedestrian when they are using the crossing

Puffin crossings


  • “Pedestrian user friendly” (puffin) crossings use electronic sensors to detect when pedestrians are using the crossing and adapt the light sequence to stop unnecessary delays to the traffic
  • Puffin crossings use the same light sequence as traffic lights
  • You must give way to any pedestrians on the crossing even if the light has turned to green
  • If the puffin crossing is straight across the road, then it is considered one crossing, even if it has a central reservation
  • If the puffin crossing is staggered (not inline either side of the central reservation, then the crossing is considered separate

Pelican crossings


  • Pelican crossing are operated when a pedestrian pushes the button situated on the traffic light pole
  • Pelican crossings do not have a red and amber phase to its light sequence, instead it has a flashing amber stage. You must give way to any pedestrians on the crossing when the amber light is flashing but you may go if the crossing is clear
  • If the puffin crossing is straight across the road, then it is considered one crossing, even if it has a central reservation
  • If the puffin crossing is staggered (not inline either side of the central reservation, then the crossing is considered separate

Toucan crossings


  • Toucan crossings are used by both pedestrians and cyclists at the same time
  • Cyclists are allowed to ride their cycles across a toucan crossing
  • Toucan crossings have the same light sequence as traffic lights

Equestrian crossing


  • Equestrian crossings are also known as Pegasus crossings
  • Equestrian crossings are used by horse riders
  • Equestrian crossings can be used alongside any of the other kinds of light controlled crossings

School crossings


  • Always drive with extra care around a school crossing zone
  • When the amber lights are flashing on a school crossing sign keep you speed down and keep looking out for school children crossing
  • Always abide by the instructions given to you by a school crossing patrol

With the increased emphasis on the environmental factors of the motor car more people are moving towards the use of bicycles both as a mode of transport or as a hobby

  • Cyclists are vulnerable road users
  • When over taking cyclists always leave plenty of room and be aware that they may swerve around a drain cover or pothole you may not be able to see
  • Never overtake cyclists just before you are turning at a junction
  • In high winds cyclists can be blow off course unexpectedly
  • Cyclists are small and can be harder to see, always take extra care looking for cyclists at junctions and at night
  • Cyclists are slower that motor cars, we should be patient when following cyclists giving them plenty of room.
  • Never drive in cycle lanes unless it is appropriate to do so

Your vehicle mirrors play a very important role in defensive driving, having your mirrors correctly adjusted and clean will help keep you and other road users safe.

Interior mirror

  • You adjust the interior mirror manually
  • Make sure you have set the mirror so you a clear view out of the rear window, setting the mirror so it slightly angled to the offside will increase the mirrors effectiveness at spotting hazards
  • The interior mirror is made of a flat glass which will give you a true representation of distance other road users are behind you
  • Interior mirrors will be fitted with an anti-dazzle system, this can be either a sensor that darkens the mirror or a switch that is at the bottom of the mirror. The anti-dazzle will help if a large vehicles lights are reflecting in your interior mirror and hindering your view

Wing Mirrors

  • Wing mirrors are fitted to the outside of your vehicle
  • They are adjusted either electronically or by a lever situated inside your vehicle
  • Set the wing mirrors so you have the best view of the road behind and the side of your car being slightly visible in the wing mirrors

Use of vehicle mirrors

  • Mirrors should be checked “methodically and in pairs” starting with the interior mirror and the exterior mirror
  • You should check your mirrors every time you are about to change course or speed

With an ever-increasing emphasis on limiting the effects motorcars have on the environment, it is important that we use a car in the most fuel-efficient way possible.

Plan your journey

  • Make sure your journey is planned out before you start driving, checking for any traffic disruption on your route
  • Use a sat nav, they can offer alternative routes to avoid traffic
  • Plan where you will park before you arrive, this will stop you driving around looking for car parks

Drag and excessive weight

Remove roof racks or cycle racks when they are not in use, they will increase wind resistance and can dramatically increase fuel consumption

Do not leave unnecessary loads in your vehicle, the extra weight will make your engine work harder and increase fuel consumption


The faster you drive the higher your fuel consumption

Keep within the speed limits

Stop start technology and idling

Using stop start technology to turn off your engine when waiting will stop you wasting fuel

If your vehicle is not fitted with stop start technology, turn off your engine when you are waiting for more than a few seconds

Cruise control

When it is appropriate and safe you use cruise control if it is fitted, this will help maintain a steady speed and reduce fuel consumption

Air Conditioning and climate control

Air conditioning and climate control are both very good systems for helping you keep your temperature comfortable, but they also increase fuel consumption

Turn off your air conditioning or climate control when they are not needed


Satellite navigation systems (sat-nav) can offer you alternative routes that avoid congestion, this can make your journey more fuel efficient

Helpful items could be

  • An appropriate fire extinguisher and fire blanket

If you suspect, there may be a fire in your vehicle

  • Pull over as quickly and as safely possible
  • Exit the vehicle and make sure all passengers exit the vehicle as quickly as possible
  • Call for assistance from the emergency services
  • Do not open the bonnet, this can dramatically increase the size and severity of the fire
  • Only attempt to use your fire equipment if it is safe to do so, do not try to extinguish a large fire, wait for the emergency services
  • Stay well away from the vehicle